|Alcohol questionnaire||Alcohol use questionnaire, e.g. WHO alcohol questionnaire to measure volume as well as pattern of drinking.|
|Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis ||BIA (single frequency) allows the evaluation of body composition (fat-free mass (FFM), total body water (TBW)). There are several requirements: subjects should not have significant fluid and electrolyte abnormalities, it should be applied to an appropriate population, with age or pathology-specific BIA equations and established procedures.|
|BOD POD||BOD POD: A method to evaluate body composition. The BOD POD is a computerized, egg-shaped chamber. Using the same whole-body measurement principle as underwater weighing, the BOD POD measures a subject's mass and volume by air displacement plethysmography, from which their whole-body density is determined. Using these data, body fat and lean muscle mass can then be calculated.|
|Calorimetric chambers||Calorimetric chambers enable the accurate evaluation of energy expenditure and the use of energy substrates (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) by an individual living under conditions that allow precise control of his physical activity and diet.||—|
|DSM V||Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition is the standard classification of mental disorders used by mental health professionals in the United States. The DSM consists of three major components: the diagnostic classification, the diagnostic criteria sets, and the descriptive text.
|DEXA||Dual-Energy X-ray absorption (DEXA) is used to measure body fat, lean tissue and bone mineral content||—|
|DEBQ||Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) for assessment of restrained, emotional, and external eating behavior.||—|
|Fibroscan liver investigation||Examination with FibroScanÂ®, also called transient elastography, is a technique used to assess liver stiffness (measured in kPa correlated to fibrosis) without invasive investigation. The technology measures the velocity of the sound wave passing through the liver and then converts that measurement into a liver stiffness measurement.
|Faecal analysis||Feacal analysis can be done with stool samples to monitor lipid and microbiota composition. Changes in human gut microbiota are associated with a variety of diseases and diet modifies gut microbiota. Profiling of the fecal microbiota can be done by Genome sequencing and ribosomal RNA survey. Microbiota-diet interactions produce metabolites, which can be analysed.|
|GCP ||Good Clinical Practice (GCP) is an international quality standard that is provided by ICH, an international body that defines standards, which governments can transpose into regulations for clinical trials involving human subjects.|
|HAD||Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The HAD scale is an instrument that can detect anxiety and depressive disorders. It contains 14 items rated from 0 to 3. Seven questions relate to anxiety (total A) and seven to the depressive dimension (D total), thus obtaining two scores (maximum score of each score = 21).
|Hospital nutrition benchmarking||Hospital nutrition benchmarking: nutritionDay questionnaires for units and patients. This has been regularly utilised for 10 years and offers speciality related benchmarking of the nutrition risk profile and interventions in specific wards.|
|IWQOL||Impact of Weight on Quality Of Life lite questionnaire is a validated, 31-item, self-report measure of obesity-specific quality of life. In addition to a total score, there are scores on five domains: Physical function, Self-esteem, Sexual life, Public distress, Work.
|MRI||Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to investigate the anatomy and physiology of the body. MRI scanners use magnetic fields and radio waves to form images of the body. Body Composition is also estimated using cross-sectional imaging methods like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
|MUST||Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool is a five step screening tool to identify adults that are malnourished, at risk of malnutrition or obese.It also includes guidelines for treatment plan.|
|Mass spectrometry||Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical chemistry technique that identifies the amount and type of chemicals present in a sample by measuring the mass-to-charge ratio and abundance of gas-phase ions.||—|
|NRS-2002||Nutrition Risk Screening 2002; The purpose of the NRS-2002 system is to detect the presence of undernutrition and the risk of developing undernutrition in the hospital setting. Patients are scored in each of the two components (1) undernutrition and (2) disease severity, according to whether they are absent, mild, moderate or severe, giving a total score 0â€“6.|
|PANDORA||PANDORA score: Patient And Nutrition Derived Outcome Risk Assessment . This instrument allows a simple comparison of hospital cohort regarding 30 day hospital mortality. |
|Photographic food record||Photographic food records with photos taken before and after meals are accurate to estimate dietary intake.|
|Double labelled water||Procedure for measuring carbon dioxide production with doubly labelled water.
|SNAQ||Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire (SNAQ) are short screening tools that can be used by untrained personnel for early detection and treatment of malnourished patients.|
|Stable Isotope Tracers||Stable isotope tracers provide a safe and powerful tool to investigate carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism, especially to asses substrate fluxes in vivo in humans. Isotopes are elements which share the same place in the periodic table. As such, they have the same number of protons, but differ in their atomic mass, which enables us to trace them by mass spectrometry.|
|SGA ||Subjective global assessment (SGA) is a validated method of nutritional assessment based on the features of a medical history (weight change, dietary intake change, gastrointestinal symptoms that have persisted for more than 2 weeks, changes in functional capacity) and physical examination (loss of subcutaneous fat, muscle wasting, ankle/sacral oedema and ascites).|
|Dietary recall | 24 hour dietary recall||The 24-hour dietary recall is an interview held in person or over the telephone where a participant is asked to report all the foods eaten in the previous 24 hour period.
|BES||The Binge Eating Scale is a sixteen item questionnaire used to assess the presence of binge eating behavior indicative of an eating disorder. The questions are based upon both behavioral characteristics (e.g., amount of food consumed) and the emotional, cognitive response, guilt or shame.|