|SNAQ||Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire (SNAQ) are short screening tools that can be used by untrained personnel for early detection and treatment of malnourished patients.|
|MNA||The Mini Nutrition Assessment is an assessment tool that can identify geriatric patients age 65 and above who are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. It is easy to use, with only 6 questions.
|Skinfolds||The skinfold measurement test is used to determine a person's body composition and body fat percentage.
This test estimates the percentage of body fat by measuring skinfold thickness at specific locations on the body.|
|SF36||The Short Form (36) Health Survey is a 36-item, patient-reported survey of patient health. The SF-36 is a measure of health status.|
|Stable Isotope Tracers||Stable isotope tracers provide a safe and powerful tool to investigate carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism, especially to asses substrate fluxes in vivo in humans. Isotopes are elements which share the same place in the periodic table. As such, they have the same number of protons, but differ in their atomic mass, which enables us to trace them by mass spectrometry.|
|QOLS||The Quality Of Life Scale is a valid instrument for measuring quality of life across patient groups and cultures and is conceptually distinct from health status or other causal indicators of quality of life.|
|MRI||Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to investigate the anatomy and physiology of the body. MRI scanners use magnetic fields and radio waves to form images of the body. Body Composition is also estimated using cross-sectional imaging methods like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
|Fibroscan liver investigation||Examination with FibroScanÂ®, also called transient elastography, is a technique used to assess liver stiffness (measured in kPa correlated to fibrosis) without invasive investigation. The technology measures the velocity of the sound wave passing through the liver and then converts that measurement into a liver stiffness measurement.
|IPAQ||The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) is used as a comparable and standardised self-report measure of habitual physical activity of populations from different countries and socio-cultural contexts.|
|Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis ||BIA (single frequency) allows the evaluation of body composition (fat-free mass (FFM), total body water (TBW)). There are several requirements: subjects should not have significant fluid and electrolyte abnormalities, it should be applied to an appropriate population, with age or pathology-specific BIA equations and established procedures.|
|RPAQ||The Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ), assess usual physical activity (PA) in 4 domains (work, travel, recreation, and domestic life).|
|Faecal analysis||Feacal analysis can be done with stool samples to monitor lipid and microbiota composition. Changes in human gut microbiota are associated with a variety of diseases and diet modifies gut microbiota. Profiling of the fecal microbiota can be done by Genome sequencing and ribosomal RNA survey. Microbiota-diet interactions produce metabolites, which can be analysed.|
|TFEQ||The "Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire" (TFEQ) contains 51 items and measures three dimensions of human eating behavior: cognitive restraint of eating (Factor I - 21 items), disinhibition (Factor II - 16 items), hungerâ€™ (Factor III - 14 items).|
|FFQ||The Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) assess dietary intake. It can be self-administered or administered by an interviewer and consists of a list of questions regarding the frequency of intake of specific foods over a predetermined time such as a week or a month. FFQs may or may not ask the portion size of the foods investigated.
|MED Diet Score||The Mediterranean Diet Score includes nine components that are characteristic of the Mediterranean diet: it ranges from 0 (minimal adherence to l Mediterranean diet) to 9 (maximal adherence).|
|HAD||Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The HAD scale is an instrument that can detect anxiety and depressive disorders. It contains 14 items rated from 0 to 3. Seven questions relate to anxiety (total A) and seven to the depressive dimension (D total), thus obtaining two scores (maximum score of each score = 21).
|SGA ||Subjective global assessment (SGA) is a validated method of nutritional assessment based on the features of a medical history (weight change, dietary intake change, gastrointestinal symptoms that have persisted for more than 2 weeks, changes in functional capacity) and physical examination (loss of subcutaneous fat, muscle wasting, ankle/sacral oedema and ascites).|
|Hospital nutrition benchmarking||Hospital nutrition benchmarking: nutritionDay questionnaires for units and patients. This has been regularly utilised for 10 years and offers speciality related benchmarking of the nutrition risk profile and interventions in specific wards.|
|Photographic food record||Photographic food records with photos taken before and after meals are accurate to estimate dietary intake.|
|IWQOL||Impact of Weight on Quality Of Life lite questionnaire is a validated, 31-item, self-report measure of obesity-specific quality of life. In addition to a total score, there are scores on five domains: Physical function, Self-esteem, Sexual life, Public distress, Work.
|NRS-2002||Nutrition Risk Screening 2002; The purpose of the NRS-2002 system is to detect the presence of undernutrition and the risk of developing undernutrition in the hospital setting. Patients are scored in each of the two components (1) undernutrition and (2) disease severity, according to whether they are absent, mild, moderate or severe, giving a total score 0â€“6.|
|GPAQ||The WHO developed the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) for physical activity surveillance.The GPAQ covers several components of physical activity, such as intensity, duration, and frequency, and it assesses three domains in which physical activity is performed (occupational physical activity, transport-related physical activity, and physical activity during discretionary or leisure time).|